Saturday, February 22, 2020
Modernization of the World - Essay Example Eventually, leisure became less influential, with most corporations giving their employees off in particular days to enjoy leisure. In other words, the world became a working nation as people struggled to expand their wealth base. Modernization did affect basic institutions as well. First, education became a serious concern because individuals needed to pass intelligence and stories from one generation to another. Schools developed ranging from lower level kindergartens to higher levels institutions of learning. Additionally, disciplines of study changed to cover many fields. For instance, psychology, law, engineering, and social arena expanded their subjects of study. Increasingly, the 20th century saw a link between the level of education and career that individuals pursued. Still, the family views on marriage because people assumed different roles. As more females entered the labor market and educated themselves, they became stable. Most women could raise children without necessarily having the support of male. Eventually, the concept of single mother became standard as professionals proved not keen on marriage. Some men and women preferred taking responsibility of their families as couples by sharing respo nsibilities but not based on traditional gender-oriented platforms. For instance, men and women could contribute equally to creating family wealth and shared duties at home equally. In fact, it was during the same period that feminism concepts became famous because women demanded equality on nearly all fronts.
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Contract Law - Case Study Example If Y makes an offer to Z, it is a specific offer and Z is the only person who can accept it. But in many cases, it is immaterial to whom the offer is made. Offers made by advertisement are the commonest form of offers made to the world at large, and can be accepted by anyone by acting on them. 2 For this case, Igor made an offer through advertisement and it was to be accepted by anyone who acted on the advertisement. Jonquil acting on the advertisement accepted the offer through the post in an acceptance letter he wrote on January 29th. The advertisement said that anyone accepting to the offer must reply to the Ritz Hotel in London by February 1st. A contract had already been entered into between Igor and Jonquil immediately a letter of acceptance was posted. It is immaterial that Igor sold the guitar since he had not received any acceptance from Jonquil. The acceptance is considered complete immediately the letter of acceptance is posted, even if it is lost or destroyed in the post so that it never arrived. As long as the offeree can prove that he posted the letter of acceptance, the court will enforce the contract. b) Ali had made a contract between him and Blessing Builders for a fixed price of 5,000 but when the repair of the kitchen was half way finished Ali added them a further 700 since he heard the they were likely to abandon the work since they had under priced the job. It is immaterial for Ali to fail to pay them the extra 700 he had added them just because he lost money on the stock market. The extra 700 he added to encourage them to complete the repair of the kitchen had not been attached to any condition that failure of not making enough money on the stock market, would make him not pay them the extra amount. For this case, Blessing Builders should be paid their promise of an extra 700 since it was not attached to any condition. It is immaterial that he is failing to pay them since he made losses on the stock market. For this case, Blessing Builders may sue Ali for damages. Ali should not withhold the extra 700 he promised to give Blessing Builders upon completion of repairing the kitchen. 4 c) On the case where Neil was advised by his uncle to leave Manchester where he worked as an insurance clerk to undertake a dentist course as he give him monthly allowances, the uncle should be sued for breach of contract. Neil enjoyed a full social life in Manchester as he worked as an insurance clerk. His uncle disrupted his social life by advising him to take a dentist course in London as he promised to give him monthly allowances while studying. For this case, there was an intention to create
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Awesome Tsunami Waves Essay A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. The effects of tsunami will bring a lot of problem to the nation and community. The effects of tsunami will bring a lot of problem to the nation and community . The general cause of tsunami is earthquakes and it will makes environmental impact and destruction. Firstly,the main cause of tsunami is from the effect of earthquakes. Tsunami, also called seismic sea waves or, incorrectly, tidal waves, generally are caused by earthquakes. Earthquakes can brings volcanic eruptions following to produce a truly awesome tsunami waves . For example ,the Great Kratatau Volcanic Eruption of 1883 generated giant waves reaching heights of 125 feet above sea-level, killing thousands of people and wiping out numerous coastal villages . Actually not all earthquakes generate tsunamis. To generate tsunamis, earthquakes must occur underneath or near the ocean, and must be large . Tsunami can happened in everywhere in the world , but in the Pacific Ocean there is a much more frequent occurrence of large because of the many large earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific Ocean. On the other hand,the effect of tsunami is it will brings environmental impact. Tsunami will destroy all the living things and then brings unbalanced of environment. The up root of trees and plants will destroys animal habitats. Land animals are killed by drowning and the sea animals are killed and poisoned by pollution if dangerous chemicals are broken and washed away into the sea . Besides, the solid waste and disaster debris also be a part of critical problem that have to face by government . Contamination of soil and water will affect the soil fertility of agricultural lands . For example, it may happened radiation resulting from damage to nuclear plants as it happened in Japan in March 2011. It will require a big cost and very long of time to government to recover the whole environment. The following effect by tsunami is detrimental destruction. The amount of energy and water contained in a huge tsunami can cause extreme destruction when it strikes land. The initial wave of huge tsunami keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. When the giant breaking waves of a tsunami batter the shoreline, they can destroy everything in their path such as boats, buildings, bridges, cars, trees, telephone lines, power lines and just about anything else in their way. Once the tsunami waves have knocked down infrastructure on the shore they may continue to travel for several miles inland, sweeping away more trees, buildings, cars and other man made equipment. In conclusion, all of the people should be educated and improve the knowledge on tsunami issue in order to protect themselves.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Many benefits of online discussion have been recorded in the literature. For example, participation in an asynchronous online discussion is time and place independent (Morse, 2003: Williams etal., 2001). Participants who involved online discussion can contribute whenever they have a useful input and wherever they are as long as they have access to a network based computer. Williams (2002, p. 266) explained the freedom from temporal and geographical constraints international students have Ã¢â¬Å"flexibility in the time, place and pace of communicationÃ¢â¬ with others. In contrast, the traditional face-to-face discussion does not have this flexibility. Online discussion allows students taking time to think about the messages they receive from their peers as well as what they postings. After a long time practice they can send without the pressure as an immediate responder (Biesenbach & Lucas, 2003). Therefore, online discussion is also defined as "a powerful tool for the development of critical thinking, collaboration, and reflection" (Williams et al., 2001, p. 151). Online discussions are deeply engaged and benefits the diverse students compared with traditional classroom discussions (Crevener, 1999, cited in Pinch & Graves, 2000). Students tend to participate more as they are aware that their participation is being monitored and recorded (Tullar et al., 1998). Online discussion within small groups or learning sets also affords a growing sense of community and a feeling among students that they can get to know each other through this medium (Curtin, 2002, cited in Lewin & Jerram, 2003; Hammond, 2000). Another major benefit of online discussion relates to the fact that in the traditional classroom situation, a few students often domi... ...e way it is used by instructors and students and how it is contribute to the course work (Elgort et al., 2003; McKinlay, 1999, cited in Biesenbach-Lucas, 2003; Weasenforth et al., 2002). The length of the discussion, the number of postings required, the size of any one contribution, the role of the instructor, the students' technical preparedness and so on, need to be carefully considered. Otherwise, the discussion may consist of contributions that are not strongly interactive and the students may simply "play the game" of assessment whereby they make postings that earn marks but do not really contribute to the development of the conversation (Oliver & Shaw, 2003, p. 56). Therefore, some authors offer tips for designing and running a good discussion in a networked environment based on their experiences (Hawisher & Pemberton, 1997; Kimball, 1995; Sullivan, 2002).
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Sustainable development is defined as development that allows us to meet our current needs without destroying the means of livelihood of future generations. There are three basic elements of sustainable development: (1) economic growth; (2) social development; and (3) environmental protection. Undoubtedly, all of these elements concern our world as a whole. Thus, it is essential to acknowledge that the health of the planet is synonymous with the health of the living beings that occupy it. Protecting the health of the planet is the mutual responsibility of all citizens of the world. Since the planet is limited with respect to its size and resources, it is a sure responsibility of all governments of the world to collectively ensure that all citizens of the globe have somewhat equal if not absolutely equal access to its resources. There are countless ways to distribute essential resources relatively equally. What is required apparently is more practice than preaching; that is, governments must be diligently finding ways to overcome global economic and environmental problems, and acting on proposed solutions. There are plenty of global issues requiring immediate outcomes and solutions. It would be wise to answer their call with immediate action. The Wal-Mart Effect: How Wal-Mart Affects the Economy Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest retailer, able to force its small competitors to shut down business as well as drive down wages. On a positive note, the retailer helps to keep down prices or inflation, and productivity at a high level. Wal-Mart sells goods at unbeatable prices. It thus Ã¢â¬Å"strikes fear into the establishment of every new industry it considers entering (Shaw et al. ). Ã¢â¬ Presently, Wal-Mart is expressing its desire to enter the banking industry in the United States. However, the banking industry is thoroughly intimidated by the kind of competition it would have to deal with. Wal-Mart is certain to be of financial service to the low-income consumer Ã¢â¬â if it does enter the banking industry in the United States, full-fledged. At least one-fifth of Wal-Mart consumers are low-income families that cannot afford to pay the high prices charged by most consumer banks and financial organizations in the United States (Weston). Hence, many low-income families do not have bank accounts in the country. Wal-Mart would like to change that, by offering unbeatable prices in the banking sector as well (Zellner). Whether the retailer has a greater positive or negative impact on the economy is, therefore, debatable. Is Capitalism Good for the Poor? A large number of people around the world are of the opinion that capitalists make profits at the expense of the poor. Others believe that capitalists provide jobs to the poor, thereby raising their standards of living. In early September, 2006, a toxic waste dumping scandal of truly globalized proportions came to light in the Ivory Coast. The Probo-Koala, a tanker chartered by the London-based shipping company, Tranfigura, set off from Amsterdam carrying four hundred metric tons of petrochemical waste to dump in Abidjan, the port city of the Ivory Coast (Vidal; Ã¢â¬Å"Ivory Coast Toxic Tanker Impounded by EstoniaÃ¢â¬ ). Tranfigura informed the Amsterdam Port Services that the waste was absolutely Ã¢â¬Å"conventional (Vidal). Ã¢â¬ However, it was later discovered that the waste contained hydrogen sulfide, which happens to be a poisonous gas, smelling as rotten eggs (Ã¢â¬Å"Ivory Coast Toxic TankerÃ¢â¬ ). At least ten people lost their lives in the weeks immediately following the incident in the Ivory Coast (Vidal). Moreover, seventy five thousand people are known to have sought medical treatment with complaints of nausea, nose bleeds, breathlessness, vomiting, diarrhea, skin damage, headaches, and swollen stomachs (Vidal; Ã¢â¬Å"Ivory Coast Toxic TankerÃ¢â¬ ). This incident was recognized as an illustration of the growth of capitalism at the expense of the Third World, regardless of the fact that capitalists provide jobs to the poor and develop their economies in the process. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Ivory Coast Toxic Tanker Impounded by Estonia. Ã¢â¬ Environmental News Service. 28 Sep 2006. 13 Nov 2007. . Shaw, Hollie, and Carrie Tait. Ã¢â¬Å"Wal-Mart eyes banking: Financial services in Canada: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a way to strengthen ties with its customers: analyst. Ã¢â¬ CanWest Interactive. 31 October 2006. 13 Nov 2007. . Vidal, J. Ã¢â¬Å"UK Class Action Starts Over Toxic Waste Dumped in Africa. Ã¢â¬ Guardian Unlimited. 8 Jan 2007. 13 Nov 2007. . Weston, Liz Pulliam. Ã¢â¬Å"National Bank of Wal-Mart? Ã¢â¬ MSN Money. 2007. 13 Nov 2007. . Zellner, Wendy. Ã¢â¬Å"Wal-Mart: Your New Banker? Ã¢â¬â Wal-Mart CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Be Or Own A Full-Fledged Bank Ã¢â¬â Yet Ã¢â¬â But Its Partnerships And In-Store Financial Services Are Giving The Industry Jitters. Ã¢â¬ Business Week. 7 February 2005.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The United States military continues to engage in one of the longest periods of combat operations in our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s history. One of the results is an increase in the amount of persons suffering Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2000), a precursor to PTSD is the experience of an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury to self or others. Grossman (2009) argues that an additional factor, the emotional and spiritual response to killing another human being, also takes a tremendous toll on the mental health of returning soldiers. Forty-eight to sixtyÃ¢â¬âfive percent of soldiers returning from Operation Enduring Freedom have reported killing an enemyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition to their role as the official motto of the United States Military Academy at West Point, the words Ã¢â¬Å"Duty, Honor, (and) CountryÃ¢â¬ serve to embody the conditioning that each recruit, both officer and enlisted, undergoes in all military branches. Each soldier is taught that they have an absolute responsibility to their fellow soldiers and the country they serve and to fail to uphold that responsibility can never be justified. This fear of failure, writes Grossman (2009) is one of the primary means the military uses to overcome soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s innate aversion to killing other human beings. It is also the fear that allows soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s to overcome the fear of death and take heroic actions (Nash, 2007). When a soldier perceives he has failed to live up to these standards, shame may result. The Stages of Killing Grossman (2009) writes that killing involves a series of emotions, beginning with concern before the killing, and followed by exhilaration, remorse, rationalization, and acceptance following the killing. Before a soldier kills for the first time, he or she will often have concerns regarding whether he or she will satisfactorily perform his or her duties or will let down fellow fighters by freezing or in some other fashion failing to properly engage the enemy. This fear of failure is generally mixed with the general fear of being killed or injured andShow MoreRelatedTrauma And Recovery By Judith Herman Essay1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In Judith HermanÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Trauma and Recovery, she discusses her research and work with trauma survivors. In her book, she writes that, Ã¢â¬Å"traumatic events are extraordinary, not because they occur rarely, but rather because they overwhelm the ordinary human adaptations to lifeÃ¢â¬ (Herman 24). She explores the idea that trauma is as indiv idual as it is common, with reactions and the journey to the post-traumatic self similar despite differences in events. In the case of Barbara Gordon, while the eventRead MoreThe Man I Killed By Tim OBrien1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Man I KilledÃ¢â¬ by Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien explores the psychological effects of someone in a war setting. While Ã¢â¬Å"Military Service, Exposure to Trauma, and Health in Older Adulthood: An Analysis of Northern Vietnamese Survivors of the Vietnam WarÃ¢â¬ by Kim Korinek and Bussarawan Teerawichitchainan further explores this idea by showing how civilians are also affected by the trauma of war not just soldiers. Ã¢â¬Å"American Ignorance of WarÃ¢â¬ by Czeslaw Milosz shows AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s obliviousness to the social norms and valuesRead MoreEssay on Ch 4 Notes Crim 260 Serial Killers1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesespecially violence. 3. To examine the incidence of school shootings by juveniles compared to adults. 4. 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It is as if the victims are suffering from delayed trauma. Several risk factors can lead to this: experiences with dangerous events/traumas, history of mental illness, physical pain, witnessing the injuries/deaths of others, feeling horror, helplessness, or extreme fear, little to no support after the trigger event, experiencing extra stress afterRead MoreEssay about Natural Descriptions in Coleridges and Lord Byrons Texts1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestexts, one that weve studied in this class and one that we havent, that handle natural description differently are Coleridges The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Lord Byrons Manfred. Both of these texts central characters have experienced trauma, and their portrayal of their environments reveal the effects that the events have left on them. While Coleridges mariner is unable to consolidate his past and is relegated to constantly relive it, Byrons Manfred has protected himself from his unnamedRead MoreToni Morrison s Beloved And The Ghosts Of Slavery : Historical Recovery1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespast and the lasting impact that unresolved past trauma has upon the present. Morrison develops the character Beloved to represent all the unremembered and untold stories of slavery and to further the message that we must maintain a collective memory of slavery in order to pursue a hopeful future. Morrison develops Beloved as a character through her interactions with other characters in the novel and they way in which they interact with their past trauma. 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There is no place on earth where someone does not get char ged for harming someone intentionally or taking the life of someone, abortion is no different. For example, if someone picked up a knife and stabbed another human being and ends up killing them. It is similar to a process of abortion occurs like when the physician uses
Friday, December 27, 2019
Portable art (known as mobiliary art or art mobilier in French) typically refers to objects carved during the European Upper Paleolithic period (40,000-20,000 years ago) that can be moved or carried as personal objects. The oldest example of portable art, however, is from Africa nearly 100,000 years older than anything in Europe. Further, ancient art is found around the globe far from Europe: the category has had to expand to serve the data that have been collected. Categories of Paleolithic Art Traditionally, Upper Paleolithic art is divided into two broad categories--parietal (or cave) art, including the paintings at Lascaux, Chauvet, and Nawarla Gabarnmang; and mobiliary (or portable art), meaning art that can be carried, such as the famous Venus figurines. Portable art consists of objects carved from stone, bone, or antler, and they take a wide variety of forms. Small, three-dimensional sculpted objects such as the widely known Venus figurines, carved animal bone tools, and two-dimensional relief carvings or plaques are all forms of portable art. Figurative and Non-Figurative Two classes of portable art are recognized today: figurative and non-figurative. Figurative portable art includes three-dimensional animal and human sculptures, but also figures carved, engraved, or painted on stones, ivory, bones, reindeer antlers, and other media. Non-figurative art includes abstract drawings carved, incised, pecked or painted in patterns of grids, parallel lines, dots, zigzag lines, curves, and filigrees. Portable art objects are made by a wide variety of methods, including grooving, hammering, incising, pecking, scraping, polishing, painting, and staining. Evidence of these ancient art forms can be quite subtle, and one reason for the broadening of the category well beyond Europe is that with the advent of optical and scanning electron microscopy, many more examples of art have been discovered. Oldest Portable Art The oldest portable art discovered to date is from South Africa and made 134,000 years ago, consisting of a piece of scored ochre at Pinnacle Point Cave. Other pieces of ochre with engraved designs include one from Klasies River cave 1 at 100,000 years ago, and Blombos cave, where engraved designs on 17 pieces of ochre were retrieved, the oldest dated to 100,000-72,000 years ago. Ostrich eggshell was first known to have been used as a medium for engraved portable art in southern Africa at Diepkloof Rockshelter and Klipdrift Shelter in South Africa and Apollo 11 cave in Namibia between 85-52,000. The earliest figurative portable art in South Africa is from the Apollo 11 cave, where seven portable stone (schist) plaques were recovered, made approximately 30,000 years ago. These plaques include drawings of rhinoceros, zebras, and humans, and possibly human-animal beings (called therianthropes). These images are painted with brown, white, black and red pigments made of a wide variety of substances, including red ochre, carbon, white clay, black manganese, white ostrich eggshell, hematite, and gypsum. Oldest in Eurasia The oldest figurines in Eurasia are ivory figurines dated to the Aurignacian period between 35,000-30,000 years ago in the Lone and Ach valleys in Swabian alps. Excavations at the Vogelherd Cave recovered several small ivory figurines of several animals; GeissenklÃ ¶sterle cave contained more than 40 pieces of ivory. Ivory figurines are widespread in the Upper Paleolithic, extending well into central Eurasia and Siberia. The earliest portable art object recognized by archaeologists was the Neschers antler, a 12,500-year-old reindeer antler with a stylized partial figure of a horse carved in the surface in left profile. This object was found at Neschers, an open-air Magdalenian settlement in Auvergne region of France and recently discovered within the British Museum collections. It was likely part of the archaeological materials excavated from the site between 1830 and 1848. Why Portable Art? Why our ancient ancestors made portable art so very long ago is unknown and realistically unknowable. However, there are plenty of possibilities that are interesting to contemplate. During the mid-twentieth century, archaeologists and art historians explicitly connected portable art to shamanism. Scholars compared the use of portable art by modern and historical groups and recognized that portable art, specifically figural sculpture, was often related to folklore and religious practices. In ethnographic terms, portable art objects could be considered amulets or totems: for a while, even terms like rock art were dropped from the literature, because it was considered dismissive of the spiritual component that was attributed to the objects. In a fascinating set of studies beginning in the late 1990s, David Lewis-Williams made the explicit connection between ancient art and shamanism when he suggested that abstract elements on rock art are similar to those images seen by people in visions during altered states of consciousness. Other Interpretations A spiritual element may well have been involved with some portable art objects, but wider possibilities have since been put forward by archaeologists and art historians, such as portable art as personal ornamentation, toys for children, teaching tools, or objects expressing personal, ethnic, social, and cultural identity. For example, in an attempt to look for cultural patterns and regional similarities, Rivero and Sauvet looked at a large set of representations of horses on portable art made from bone, antler, and stone during the Magdalenian period in northern Spain and southern France. Their research revealed a handful of traits that seem to be particular to regional groups, including the use of double manes and prominent crests, traits that persist through time and space. Recent Studies Other recent studies include that of Danae Fiore, who studied the rate of decoration used on bone harpoon heads and other artifacts from Tierra del Fuego, during three periods dated between 6400-100 BP. She found that the decoration of harpoon heads increased when sea mammals (pinnipeds) were a key prey for the people; and decreased when there was an increase in consumption of other resources (fish, birds, guanacos). Harpoon design during this time was widely variable, which Fiore suggests were created through a free cultural context or fostered through a social requirement of individual expression. Lemke and colleagues reported more than 100 incised stones at the Clovis-Early Archaic layers of the Gault site in Texas, dated 13,000-9,000 cal BP. They are among the earliest art objects from a secure context in North America. The nonfigurative decorations include geometric parallel and perpendicular lines inscribed on limestone tablets, chert flakes, and cobbles. Sources AbadÃ a, Oscar Moro. Paleolithic Art: A Cultural History. Journal of Archaeological Research, Manuel R. GonzÃ ¡lez Morales, Volume 21, Issue 3, SpringerLink, January 24, 2013. Bello SM, Delbarre G, Parfitt SA, Currant AP, Kruszynski R, and Stringer CB. Lost and found: the remarkable curatorial history of one of the earliest discoveries of Palaeolithic portable art. Antiquity 87(335):237-244. Farbstein R. The Significance of Social Gestures and Technologies of Embellishment in Paleolithic Portable Art. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 18(2):125-146. Fiore D. Art in time. Diachronic rates of change in the decoration of bone artifacts from the Beagle Channel region (Tierra del Fuego, Southern South America). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30(4):484-501. Lemke AK, Wernecke DC, and Collins MB. Early Art in North America: Clovis and Later Paleoindian Incised Artifacts from the Gault Site, Texas (41bl323). American Antiquity 80(1):113-133. Lewis-Williams JD. Agency, art, and altered consciousness: A motif in French (Quercy) Upper Paleolithic parietal art. Antiquity 71:810-830. Moro AbadÃ a O, and GonzÃ ¡lez Morales MR. Towards a genealogy of the concept of paleolithic mobiliary art. Journal of Anthropological Research 60(3):321-339. Rifkin RF, Prinsloo LC, Dayet L, Haaland MM, Henshilwood CS, Diz EL, Moyo S, Vogelsang R, and Kambombo F. Characterising pigments on 30 000-year-old portable art from Apollo 11 Cave, Karas Region, southern Namibia. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 5:336-347. Rivero O, and Sauvet G. Defining Magdalenian cultural groups in Franco-Cantabria by the formal analysis of portable artworks. Antiquity 88(339):64-80. RoldÃ ¡n GarcÃ a C, Villaverde Bonilla V, RÃ ³denas MarÃ n I, and Murcia MascarÃ ³s S. A Unique Collection of Palaeolithic Painted Portable Art: Characterization of Red and Yellow Pigments from the ParpallÃ ³ Cave (Spain). PLOS ONE 11(10):e0163565. Volkova YS. Upper Paleolithic Portable Art in Light of Ethnographic Studies. Archaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology of Eurasia 40(3):31-37.